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Martin Kramer: "The Phonology of Italian (The Phonology of the World's Languages)"

Martin Kramer "The Phonology of Italian (The Phonology of the World's Languages)"
Oxford University Press | English | 2009-07-15 | ISBN: 0199290792 | 320 pages | PDF | 1,1 MB


This book provides an overview of the phonology of Italian. It covers the different levels of analysis from individual sounds up to the phrasal level. It focuses on the most widely dispersed features of the language reflecting its significant regional and social variation and its most prominent regionally restricted patterns.
Martin Kramer provides a critical survey of the generative literature on Italian phonology. He reports on current debates in the field, considers their particular and general theoretical interest, and provides both syntheses and original analyses. His accounts of the main aspects and characteristics of Italian phonology are couched in the framework of Optimality Theory, but he keeps formal aspects and theory-internal matters to a minimum and separate from the presentation and description of the data. His exposition is thus fully accessible to students and researchers who are not familiar with or do not subscribe to the tenets of the theory. Individual chapters may thus serve as starting points for in-depth investigations into particular aspects of Italian phonology in whatever framework the reader chooses to employ.
The Phonology of Italian is the first fully comprehensive account of its subject for many years. It will interest scholars and advanced students of Italian, Romance phonology, and phonology as a system.


CONTENTS
Acknowledgements viii
Notation Conventions ix
The International Phonetic Alphabet x
Abbreviations xi
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Approaching Italian 1
1.2 A rationale 3
1.3 An overview of this book 5
1.4 Orthography 8
2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 11
2.1 Optimality Theory 11
2.2 The parallel structures model of segmental representations 17
3 AVERY BRIEF HISTORY OF ITALIAN PHONOLOGY 22
3.1 Latin as a starting point 23
3.2 Major developments on the way from Latin to Italian 25
3.2.1 Changes in the consonantal system 26
3.2.2 Changes in the vowel system 30
3.2.3 Changes in prosodic organization 33
3.3 Explaining historical change 35
3.3.1 Neogrammarian sound change 35
3.3.2 Contrast innovation and fading-out of phonological processes 36
3.3.3 Classical lexical diffusion 39
3.3.4 Rule inversion 42
3.3.5 Summary 42
4 SEGMENTAL PHONOLOGY 44
4.1 The sound inventory 45
4.1.1 Consonants 45
4.1.2 Vowels 50
4.2 Segmental alternations 56
4.2.1 Palatalization 56
4.2.1.1 Alveolar affrication and velar palatalization 57
4.2.1.2 Place features 68
4.2.1.3 Constraint-based analysis of palatalization 73
4.2.2 The status of glides: vowel-glide alternations 84
4.2.2.1 Separating high vowels and glides 85
4.2.2.2 Analysis 91
vi contents
4.2.3 Vowel neutralization 99
4.2.3.1 Overview 100
4.2.3.2 Representations and derivations of metaphony 104
4.2.3.3 Unstressed vowel reduction and metaphony in OT 111
4.2.3.4 Summary 123
4.3 A feature set for the Italian segment inventory 124
5 SYLLABLE STRUCTURE 127
5.1 Italian onset phonotactics 128
5.2 The rhyme 134
5.2.1 The size of the rhyme 135
5.2.2 The coda condition 137
5.3 Across syllable boundaries 140
5.4 An OT analysis 142
6 WORD STRESS 156
6.1 Overview 156
6.2 Default stress 160
6.2.1 Identifying the problem 160
6.2.2 Nonce-word test method 167
6.2.3 Results 169
6.2.4 Analysis of nonce-word stress patterns 177
6.2.4.1 All light syllables 179
6.2.4.2 Quantity 183
6.2.5 Comments and further refinement 185
6.3 Lexical stress 187
6.3.1 Conflicting stress marks 187
6.3.2 OT analysis of lexical stress 190
6.4 Secondary stress 194
6.5 The domain of stress 197
7 PROSODIC PHONOLOGY 203
7.1 The prosodic hierarchy 203
7.2 Intervocalic s-voicing 207
7.2.1 Overview 207
7.2.2 Formal analyses 211
7.3 Raddoppiamento sintattico 219
7.3.1 The different types of consonant doubling
and their previous analyses 219
7.3.2 An OT analysis of phonological consonant doubling 225
7.3.3 Summary 234
7.4 Vowel deletion 234
7.4.1 Deletion, syntactic structure, and speech rate 235
7.4.2 A unified analysis of deletion 243
contents vii
7.5 Phrasal stress and focus: phonology and syntax in interaction 249
7.5.1 Overview 249
7.5.2 Phonological and syntactic phrasing 252
7.5.3 Phrasal stress 257
7.5.4 Phrasal stress, focus, and syntactic movement 260
7.6 Conclusions on prosodic phonology 263
References 265
Subject Index 279
Index of Names 285

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